Do all cancers have p53 mutation?
The p53 gene contains homozygous mutations in ~50–60% of human cancers. About 90% of these mutations encode missense mutant proteins that span ~190 different codons localized in the DNA-binding domain of the gene and protein.
How does p53 become mutated?
Most TP53 mutations change single amino acids in the p53 protein, which leads to the production of an altered version of the protein that cannot control cell proliferation and is unable to trigger apoptosis in cells with mutated or damaged DNA. As a result, DNA damage can accumulate in cells.
Where is p53 mutated?
Taken together, it appears that in certain cancers, p53 is mutated late in the tumorigenesis process or plays a significant role in those advanced stages, leading to a more aggressive and invasive tumor.
Why is p53 mutated in cancer cells?
In some cases, malignant cancer cells bearing p53 mutations display a chemo-resistant phenotype. In response to a variety of cellular stresses such as DNA damage, p53 is induced to accumulate in cell nucleus to exert its pro-apoptotic function.
Can p53 be mutated?
P53 is often mutated in solid tumors, in fact, somatic changes involving the gene encoding for p53 (TP53) have been discovered in more than 50% of human malignancies and several data confirmed that p53 mutations represent an early event in cancerogenesis.
What happens if both p53 alleles are mutated?
While carcinogenesis requires the loss of both alleles of most tumor suppressor genes, mutation of one allele of p53 can result in loss of function.
What type of gene is p53?
The p53 gene is a type of tumor suppressor gene. Also called TP53 gene and tumor protein p53 gene.
Is p53 good or bad?
p53, famously dubbed ‘The Guardian of the Genome’, is arguably the most significant gene for cancer suppression. Somatic loss of function of p53 underpins tumor progression in most epithelial cancers and many others besides.
How is p53 inactivated?
In addition to genetic inactivation, the p53 protein can be functionally inactivated in cancer, through post-transductional modifications, changes in cellular compartmentalization, and interactions with other proteins.
How is p53 mutation treated?
Many researchers believe the emerging science of gene therapy holds the key. A gene therapy treatment based on restoring p53 could be safely combined with traditional cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy to increase the overall effectiveness of the treatment plan.