What do you mean by cancer cells are clonal in origin?


What does clonal mean in cancer?

Clonal evolution suggests that expansion of a population of cancer cells from an individual single-cell causes tumor heterogeneity in pathology and molecular profiles with acquired genetic and epigenetic changes (Stingl and Caldas, 2007).

Why would someone say that cancer cells are clonal?

Once an abnormal cell has formed, it is able to divide uncontrollably. The cancer cells are clonal, which means that the cells produced by the original cells division also have lost their concept of cell regulation.

Are all cancers clonal?

Each cancer is unique. Cancers evolve over a variable time frame (anywhere from 1 to 50 years), and the clonal structure, genotype and phenotype can shift over time in each patient. Each cancer is, in effect, multiple different (subclonal) cancers that occupy overlapping or distinct tissue habitats.

Is cancer linked to evolution?

Cancer development within an individual is also an evolutionary process, which in many respects mirrors species evolution. Species evolve by mutation and selection acting on individuals in a population; tumors evolve by mutation and selection acting on cells in a tissue.

Are cancers monoclonal or polyclonal?

Reply to Parsons: Many tumor types follow the monoclonal model of tumor initiation. We agree that some cancers may primarily have a polyclonal origin that results in genetically heterogeneous tumors. Retracing the Evolutionary Steps in Cancer (RESIC), as currently implemented (1), is not applicable to these cases.

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Are clones genetically identical?

Clones contain identical sets of genetic material in the nucleus—the compartment that contains the chromosomes—of every cell in their bodies. Thus, cells from two clones have the same DNA and the same genes in their nuclei.

Do tumors show clonal evolution?

Cancers evolve by a reiterative process of clonal expansion, genetic diversification and clonal selection within the adaptive landscapes of tissue ecosystems. The dynamics are complex with highly variable patterns of genetic diversity and resultant clonal architecture.

Are tumors clonal?

A neoplasm that has a clonal origin begins, by definition, in one cell (e.g. in an A cell), and thus all cells in that tumor will have one type (A) as descendants of the one A progenitor cell. If, in contrast, a tumor is found to contain neoplastic cells of both A and B types, it must have had a multicellular origin.

What is clonal growth?

Clonal growth, vegetative reproduction in which offspring remain attached to the parent at least until establishment, is common in plants and in ecosystems around the world and appears to be associated with the invasiveness of introduced plant species.